Volume 2, Issue 4 (DECEMBER ISSUE 2021)                   johepal 2021, 2(4): 121-139 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Eizadirad A, Holm J, Sider S. A Case Study of Teacher Candidates’ Experiences: Writing the Pilot Math Proficiency Test in Ontario, Canada. johepal 2021; 2 (4) :121-139
URL: http://johepal.com/article-1-154-en.html
Abstract:   (1367 Views)
The focus of this article is on the introduction, justification, and enactment of the Mathematics Proficiency Test (MPT) by the provincial government in Ontario, Canada as a mandatory certification requirement for newly certified teachers. This article contextualizes the socio-political factors leading to the enactment of a MPT for newly certified teachers, developed and administered by the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), which was ostensibly to mitigate the trend of declining math scores in elementary schools. It then shifts to examine the experiences of the first cohort of teacher candidates from a Canadian university who participated in writing the pilot MPT in February and March of 2020. Data was collected via survey responses administered through Qualtrics software. Survey invitations were sent to all teacher candidates who graduated in 2020 or 2021 with 50 of the 130 eligible teacher candidates responding. A thematic analysis of survey responses was conducted to discuss emerging findings about teacher candidates’ experiences before, the day of, and after writing the MPT as a case study. On December 17, 2021 the Ontario Superior Court of Justice ruled the MPT unconstitutional due to having an adverse impact on entry to the teaching profession for racialized teacher candidates.
Full-Text [PDF 1599 kb]   (660 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/11/29 | Accepted: 2021/12/25 | Published: 2021/12/30

1. Abawi, Z., & Eizadirad, A. (2020). Bias-free or biased hiring? Racialized teachers’ perspectives on educational hiring practices in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, (193), 18-31.
2. Artuso, A. (2019). Ontario investing $55M in math after EQAO elementary scores decline. Toronto Sun. Available online at https://torontosun.com/news/provincial/ontario-eqao-elementary-math-scores-decline [Article]
3. Au, W. (2009). Unequal by Design: High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. Routledge.
4. Au, W. (2016). Meritocracy 2.0: High-stakes, standardized testing as a racial project of neoliberal multiculturalism. Educational Policy, 30(1), 39-62. [DOI]
5. Basu, R. (2004). The rationalization of neoliberalism in Ontario's public education system, 1995–2000. Geoforum, 35(5), 621-634. [DOI]
6. Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing Education: Nourishing the Learning Spirit. Purich Publishing Ltd.
7. Campbell, C., Clinton,J., Fullan,M., Hargreaves, A., James, C., & Longboat, K. D. (2018). Ontario: A Learning Province. Queens Printer, Ontario Ministry of Education. [Article]
8. Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2017). Thematic analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 297-298. [DOI]
9. Collaco, C. (2019). Close to 2K jobs lost so far, says teacher tracking Ontario education cuts. CBC. Available online at https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/teacher-cuts-1.5118053 [Article]
10. Colour of Poverty. (2019). Colour of poverty factsheets. Available online at https://colourofpoverty.ca/fact-sheets/ [Article]
11. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.
12. Curtis, B., Livingstone, D. W., & Smaller, H. (1992). Stacking the Deck: The Streaming of Working-Class Kids in Ontario Schools. Toronto, Ontario: Our Schools/Our Selves.
13. DeClerq, K. (2020). Ontario plans to stop Grade 9 students from streaming into applied or academic tracks. CTV News. Available online at https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/mobile/ontario-plans-to-stop-grade-9-students-from-streaming-into-applied-or-academic-tracks-1.5012149 [Article]
14. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2011). EQAO tests in elementary school: A guide for parents. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
15. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2012). The power of Ontario’s provincial testing program. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
16. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2013). EQAO: Ontario’s provincial assessment program- Its history and influence 1996-2012. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
17. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2019). Highlights of the provincial results: Mathematics. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
18. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2020a). The Ontario Mathematics Proficiency Test (MPT): Assessment blueprint. Available online at https://www.mathproficiencytest.ca/docs/blueprint-20200426/MPT_Assessment_Blueprint-EN.pdf [Article]
19. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2020b). All K-12 EQAO assessments for the 2019–2020 school year have been cancelled, as per direction from the Ministry of Education, due to the extraordinary circumstances facing the province. Available online at https://www.eqao.com/about-eqao/media-room/2019-2020-assessment-cancellation/ [Article]
20. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2020c). Administration dates. Available online at https://www.eqao.com/the-assessments/administration-dates/ [Article]
21. Education Quality and Accountability Office. (2020d). EQAO digitalization and modernization. [Article]
22. Eizadirad, A. (2018). Legitimization and normalization of EQAO standardized testing as an accountability tool in Ontario: Rise of quantifiable outcome-based education and inequitable educational practices. OISE Graduate Student Research Conference Journal, 1(1), 6-18.
23. Eizadirad, A. (2019). Decolonizing Educational Assessment: Ontario Elementary Students and the EQAO. Palgrave Macmillan.
24. Eizadirad, A. (2020). External assessment as stereotyping: Experiences of racialized grade 3 children, parents and educators with standardized testing in elementary schools. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 42(4), 277-295. [DOI]
25. Eizadirad, A., & Sider, S. (2020). Schools after coronavirus: Seize ‘teachable moments’ about racism and inequities. The Conversation. Available online at https://theconversation.com/schools-after-coronavirus-seize-teachable-moments-about-racism-and-inequities-142238 [Article]
26. Fesseha, E., Wickstrom, H., & Jang, E. E. (2020). Investigating math achievement patterns over time among Ontario elementary school students with different language and literacy characteristics. Canadian Journal of Education, 43(2), 548-581.
27. Garrison, M. J. (2009). A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing. University of New York Press.
28. Gidney, R. D. (1999). From Hope to Harris: The Reshaping of Ontario’s Schools. University of Toronto Press.
29. Glassford, L. A. (2007). Quality assurance or election fodder? The politics of teacher testing in Ontario, 1999-2003. Historical Studies in Education, 19(1), 25-52. [DOI]
30. Green, J., Willis, K., Hughes, E., Small, R., Welch, N., Gibbs, L., & Daly, J. (2007). Generating best evidence from qualitative research: The role of data analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 31(6), 545-550. [DOI]
31. Grey, M. K. (2017). Perpetuating inequities in Ontario schools: A large-scale practice of assessment. Master of Teaching research paper, Department Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. [Article]
32. Hargreaves, A. (2020). Large-scale assessments and their effects: The case of mid-stakes tests in Ontario. Journal of Educational Change, 21(3), 393-420. [DOI]
33. Harris, P., Smith, B. M., & Harris, J. (2011). The Myths of Standardized Tests: Why They Don’t Tell You What You Think They Do. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
34. Holm, J., & Kajander, A. (2020). Hitting the conceptual knowledge wall: Pre-service teacher responses to high-stakes mathematics testing failure. Canadian Journal of Education, 43(3), 630-658.
35. Hursh, D. (2007). Assessing no child left behind and the rise of neoliberal education policies. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 493-518. [DOI]
36. James, C. (2020). Ending ‘streaming’ is only the first step to dismantling systemic racism in Ontario schools. The Conversation. Available online at https://theconversation.com/ending-streaming-is-only-the-first-step-to-dismantling-systemic-racism-in-ontario-schools-142617 [Article]
37. James, C. (2020). Ending ‘streaming’ is only the first step to dismantling systemic racism in Ontario schools. The Conversation. Available online at https://theconversation.com/ending-streaming-is-only-the-first-step-to-dismantling-systemic-racism-in-ontario-schools-142617 [Article]
38. Kohn, A. (2000). The Case Against Standardized Testing: Raising Scores, Ruining the Schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
39. McGraw, A., & Fish, T. (2018). Selection and rejection in teacher education: Qualities of character crucial in selecting and developing teacher education students. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 46(2), 120-132. [DOI]
40. Montenegro, E., & Jankowski, N. A. (2020). A new decade for assessment: Embedding equity into assessment praxis. Champaign, IL: National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA). [Article]
41. Nagy, P. (2000). The three roles of assessment: Gatekeeping, accountability, and instructional diagnosis. Canadian Journal of Education, 25(4), 262-279.
42. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). The Ontario curriculum grades 1-8: Mathematics (Rev. ed.). Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
43. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). Growing success: Assessment, evaluation, and reporting in Ontario schools (1st ed.). Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
44. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2013). Learning for all: A guide to effective assessment and instruction for all students, Kindergarten to Grade 12. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. [Article]
45. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2020). Mathematics. Available online at https://www.dcp.edu.gov.on.ca/en/curriculum/elementary-mathematics [Article]
46. Ontario Teachers’ Federation. (2021). Ontario court declares that the Ontario Math Proficiency Test is unconstitutional. https://www.otffeo.on.ca/en/news/ontario-court-declares-that-the-ontario-math-proficiency-test-is-unconstitutional/ [Article]
47. People for Education (2019). The Math Proficiency Test. Available online at https://peopleforeducation.ca/our-work/the-math-proficiency-test-ontario-implements-mandatory-teacher-testing-for-new-teachers/ [Article]
48. Pinto, L. E. (2016). Tensions and fissures: The politics of standardised testing and accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015. The Curriculum Journal, 27(1), 95-112. [DOI]
49. Putwain, D., & Remedios, R. (2014). The scare tactic: Do fear appeals predict motivation and exam scores? School Psychology Quarterly, 29(4), 503-516. [DOI]
50. Redden, E. (2019). A 10% tuition cut, but who benefits? Inside Higher Ed. Available online at https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/01/18/ontario-cuts-tuition-10-percent-while-reducing-aid-spending-raising-concerns-about [Article]
51. Royal Society of Canada. (2021). Children and Schools During COVID-19 and Beyond: Engagement and Connection Through Opportunity. Available online at https://rsc-src.ca/sites/default/files/C%26S%20PB_EN_0.pdf [Article]
52. Smith, K. (2020). Timeline of education :union:s’ negotiations with Ontario government. Goderich Signal-Star. Available online at https://www.goderichsignalstar.com/news/local-news/timeline-of-education-:union:s-negotiations-with-ontario-government [Article]
53. Stiggins, R. (2014). Revolutionize Assessment: Empower Students, Inspire Learning. USA: Corwin.
54. Syed, F. (2019). Here’s everything the Doug Ford government cut in its first year in office. Canada’s National Observer. Available online at https://www.nationalobserver.com/2019/06/07/news/heres-everything-doug-ford-government-cut-its-first-year-office [Article]
55. Toronto Foundation. (2021). Toronto’s Vital Signs: 2021 Report. [Article]
56. Volante, L. (2007). Educational quality and accountability in Ontario: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 58, 1-21.
57. Weiner, E. J. (2014). Deschooling the Imagination: Critical Thought as Social Practice. USA: Paradigm Publishers.
58. Wickstrom, H., Fesseha, E., & Jang, E. E. (2020). Examining the relation between IEP status, testing accommodations, and elementary students’ EQAO mathematics achievement. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 20(2), 297-311. [DOI]
59. Wong, J. (2020). Virtual schools face rocky start — With delays, confusion and technical problems. CBC. Available online at https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/virtual-school-start-challenge-1.5723638 [Article]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Higher Education Policy And Leadership Studies

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb